عنوان مقاله [English]
Following the emergence of the Constitutional Revolution, the political and social atmospheres of Iran were affected so seriously that for a long time did not restore its desirable peace. Political instability and continuous fall of passive cabinets intensified the vehemence of this critical situation. World War I and its catastrophic aftermath caused a very turbulent condition in Iran. Central government’s inability to control the crisis resulted in an emergence of some self-motivated social associations. These groups were mainly concerned with the improvement of this critical situation. Their approach to this problem was a reformist and nationalist one. The Junbish-e Jangal (Jungle Movement) was one of these social associations that was activating in Guilan province in northern Iran. Having been led by Mīrzā Kūchak khān, a religious-nationalist prominent figure of contemporary Iran, but composed of very eclectic elements, it grew enormously throughout that region. Following the extension of the movement’s activities, its operational wing started the publication of a newspaper called Jangal (“Jungle”). The purpose behind the publication of this newspaper was to promulgate Jangalī’s reformist ideas and critical thoughts. However Jangal did not last for a long time, during its short period of publication (just one year) it criticized central government as well as politicians. It also criticized the interventional activities of Britain and Imperial Russia in Iran which was presumed by Jangalī’s as offensive and destructive. This article has touched upon the most important concerns of Jangal’s writers and their delineation of the social situation during this time.