عنوان مقاله [English]
Nāser ad-Dīn shah’s rule in Iran (1264-1313/1848-1899), as the longest period of sultanate during Qājār era (1797-1925), witnessed an unprecedented expansion of relations with Europe. Due to this development, a considerable volume of modern thoughts and technologies introduced the country. It was not the mere result however, and certain economic and political challenges emerged too. Beside the efforts made by some independent intellectuals to introduce certain reforms to the political structure, there were also a group of traditional politicians who felt the necessity of reform as well. This group of reformists maintained a rather conservative approach to political reform. Murtezā Qulī Khān Sanī’ al-dawlah was a paramount figure in this group whose approach to political reform is a case of special importance and worth of an adequate study. The present study concentrated on this figure and his role in establishing the parliamentary system in Iran as well as his contribution to the introduction of modern industry to the country. It claims a special importance for the social background of Hedāyat family to which Sanī’ al-Dawlah belonged and his graduate studies in Germany. According to author, this social and educational background prepared Sanī’ al-Dawlah with an emphatic concern for introduction of western technology to Naserid Iran. However, Sanī’ al-Dawlah career was not limited to this. He also played an effective role in constitutional revolution and cooperated actively to establish parliamentary system in Iran.